The fight against malaria is one of humanity’s most significant public health successes. Malaria, caused by a parasite spread by certain types of mosquitoes, is among the world’s deadliest infectious diseases. Pregnant women and children under age five are most at risk because of their weaker immune systems. In 2019, children under five accounted for 67% of all malaria deaths worldwide.

HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus, which targets the immune system and weakens people’s defense systems. AIDS is acquired immune deficiency syndrome, the most advanced stage of HIV infection.

Today, with access to treatment, an HIV-positive person can expect to have the same lifespan as someone who is HIV-negative. One of the cornerstones of this lifesaving treatment is the use of antiretrovirals (ARVs). While ARVs are not a cure, people living with HIV who take ARVs effectively and whose level of HIV is suppressed to undetectable levels will not transmit HIV sexually.